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AP化学最全面知识点总结
2017-06-14

作为每年AP考试的首发科目,化学五分不仅是丰厚学分or学费的象征,更是一鼓作气、连战连捷的信号弹。考好了,出门玩耍都更有底气,考不好了⋯⋯呵呵。


恐吓完毕,下面来说说到底怎么在九天内把这门知识点繁多,号称“ 理科中的文科”高效复习好。考虑到多数同学都会同时备考几门AP课程,这里只需要你分配给化学九天,每天两个小时,真的不能再省了。 当然还有个前题,比如你已经上过某些培训机构的强化课程,或者已经把普林斯顿类的教材自学了至少一遍,或者现在随意做套真题正确率至少能达到一半;如果连这个基础都没有,那就请把每天的学习时间延长,达到同样的目标要求即可。 综述一下,整个计划的前七天以逐章复习知识点和刷习题为主,忏悔之前的懒惰为辅;后两天以练成套真题为主,查漏补缺和记单词为辅。


第一天> 原子, 核化学

知识点:


1)了解Dalton, Thomson, Millikan, Rutherford探索原子结构时的主要手段和成果;熟悉Bohr模型和L.de Broglie波粒二相性的理论和相关公式, 会用Heisenberg测不准原理解释原子结构。


2)能懂且会用四个量子数表示电子排步。


3)理解Pauli, Aufbau, Hund, Energy Overlay这四条电子排步原则,熟记各条反例,如Cr, Cu, Mo, Ag这些半满轨道排步。


4)能解释原/离子半径、电离能、电亲和势、电负性的周期性递变原因;熟记s/p-block、半金属元素的符号缩写和英文全拼。


5)牢记核衰变反应的定义,各类核反应释放出的微粒or射线实质;熟练配平反应式和计算半衰期。


Electron model


1. Black body radiation—undermine classical physics--Mac Plank E=hv -- photoelectric effect


2. Spectra: continuous spectrum(all color), emission lines spectra(color with special energy are on the spectra), absorption spectra (black lines, reverse of emission lines)


3. En=-Rn(1/n^2) 1/wavelength=Rh(1/(n1)^2-1/(n2)^2)


4. For one electron atoms or ions: Bohr Model (classic physics+ Rutherford model+ quantum theory)


(1)angular momentum(energy) is quantized, electron in orbit radiate no energy


(2)photon-excitization-excited state-move back-electromagnetic radiation


(3)e can exist in possible circular orbit with fixed radius

5. E=-2.18*10^-18/n^2


6. First ionization energy of H: 2.18*10^-18


7. wave and particle duality: De Broglie wavelength=h/p=h/mv=10^-10m


8. Heisenberg uncertainty principle: dx*dp>=k/4pi. It is impossible to determine position and momentum at the same time.


9. Wave mechanical model:

(1)calculate possible energy states and positions


(2) Quantum number and wave function (probability of locating an e in a region in space)


10. Quantum numbers:


(1) principle quantum number: n, determine size and energy of orbital


(2) angular momentum number: l (0——n-1) shape of orbital


(3) magnetic quantum numbers: ml (-l——l) orientation


(4) Spin quantum number: ms=+-1/2 spin


11. when Z>1 : nuclear charge is greater, e and e repulsion, penetration (cause of fraction Zeff)


Period:


1. Group1: alkali metal, group2:alkali earth metal, group5:pnictogens(stifle), group6: chalcogens (elements to make ore), group7:halogen, group8: noble gas


2. Transition metal: 3-12. Inner transition element: actinides and lanthanides


3. Metallic character decreases from Fr to F

metal

non metal

reducing agent

oxidizing agent

heat/electric conductivity

no heat/electric conductivity

shiny

not shiny

hard

soft

Ductile , compressible

not ductile, compressible

delocalized e

no delocalized e

basic oxide

acidic oxide


4. Semimetal: conduct electricity and very low temperature, superconductor


5. D-block: colored compound, complex ion, many oxidation states, magnetic properties, catalysis


6. Atomic radius: increase down a group because: valence n increases, valence e further from nucleus, an extra full shell repels other e to make it bigger


Decrease across a period because: e is added to the same valence shell, shielding by inner shell is constant, Zeff increases so valence e is pulled closer


7. Radius of ions: cation is smaller and anion is bigger.


8. Electronegativity: ability of a bonded atom to attract a shared pair of e.


9. Down a group and En decreases because atoms have bigger radius. Across a period En increases because atom is smaller and Zeff increases.


10. Ionization energy: first ionizing energy: E(g)-E+(g)+e- second ionizing energy: E(g)-E2+(g)+2e-


11. Down a group IE decreases as radius increases and nuclei have less attraction of valence electron, across a period IE increases as Zeff increases, attraction increases and it is harder to pull a e away. Small trend because e is spinning paired and repulsion exist between 2e in the same orbital


12. Successive ionization energy: pick 1 element and takes away its electrons one by one, the jump of energy is orbital because: when there is less e, more attracted to nucleus, repulsion is smaller with less e, when removed a shell, it is harder to move another e as it is closer to the nucleus


13. Electron affinity: first EA: E(g)+e—E-(g)


14. Trends are not clear but basic trends are: down a group less negative as radius increases-attraction decreases-less energy released, across a period more negative as Zeff increases-attraction increases-energy released increases.


15. Group1: lowest 1stIE in periodic table, slightly negative EA, keen to give up e but weakly to accept e


16. Group7: high1stIE, high negative EA, lose e with difficult but gain easily


17. Group8: very high 1stIE, slightly positive EA, tend not to lose or gain e easily.


题-Multiple Choice (MC)选自 Barron’s 2009 ed., Free Response (FR)选自历年真题: MC: Chp.1 –Question (Q#) 10, 12, 13, 15, 22; Chp.2 -Q6, 9, 13, 14; Chp.3 –Q1-3, 5, 7, 9。


FR: 2010年 Q6 (a-c), 2007年Form B Q2、Q7 ( a-c (i) ),2006年Form B Q7 (a, c, d)。


第二天> 分子内的键和分子间的力,一丢丢化学运算题

知识点:


1) 能判别离子、金属、共价键,以及分析前两者强弱。


2)会画共价化合物的Lewis dot structure ,20秒一个。能从重叠方式不同解释sigma和pi键的区别,知道键级、键能、键长的联系。


3)能用VBT解释共价键实质,用HOT解释中心原子如何杂化,用VSEPR解释成键电子/孤对电子间如何排斥并占据空间。


4)能分析出且熟记成键电子数 + 孤对电子数小于等于六时的各种空间构型,包括中心原子的轨道杂化方式、几何体名称、键角、分子极性。


5)根据极性不同判断出三类分子间作用力,知道其强弱各自受哪些因素影响,以及它们的相对强弱。 6)掌握化合价配平法,半分钟一个式子;关于mole运算、经验/分子式、净离子方程式...这些初中就开始练的题,怎么还好意思错呢。


Bond


1. Reason of bond: electrostatics, lower their energy


2. Bond: covalent(non-metal and non-metal), ionic(non-metal and metal), metallic(metal and metal)


3. Lewis theory: octet rule. Every atom tens to have 8 e. discovered by noble gas


4. Lattice energy: a measure of strength of attraction between ions Na(g)+ Cl(g)- NaCl(s) unit is KJ/mol. Measured in born-haber cycle(chemical way) and born-mayer cycle(LE=k(Z+*Z-)/r)


Ionic solid:


1. giant 3-D lattice


2. Hydration energy: energy used to make ions in water completely surround by a shell of water molecule. When LE<HE, soluble. Bigger radius, more electrons, higher HE. Endothermic dissolve is caused by entropy, like NH4NO3. HE is decided by Z and r.


3. High melting point and boiling point: it is hard to make ions vibrate so harder to pull them apart.


4. Conduct electricity: when molten or dissolved in water because ions can mobile


5. Brittle: when hit, cation and cation (anion and anion) will move and repel each other.


Metallic bonding


1. low melting point and high boiling point: it is easy to pull metal atoms apart but it is hard to completely separate an atom


2. good thermo and electric conductivity: mobile e-


3. luster


4. Malleable and ductile: forces of attraction are not broken. Ion slide over each other but still held together


5. melting point increases when Z increases: more e- and less radius


Covalent bond


1. bond length and strength: long the bond, weaker it is


2. bond energy is measured in KJ/mol


3. poor conduction of electricity: no delocalized e- (except graphite)

 

4. melting point and boiling point: - giant lattice: high because hard to break bond -molecular solid: low because IMF is weak


5. diamond: -hard: 3D interlocking of covalent bond -not conduct electricity: all valence e is used in bond

 

6. Graphite: -conduct electricity: delocalized e -soft weak: LDF between layers are easy to overcome by force.


Coordination compound


1. Contains complex ion and counter ion. Ex: [Co(NH3)6]3+(complex ion) + Cl-(counter ion)

 

2. ligand: provide both electron for covalent bond so must have lone pairs. Are around transition metal in complex ion.

3. name: name cation first, include oxidation state of cation, then name anion ex: hexaamminecobalt(iii) chloride

4. Formation reason: d orbital of metal is empty and overlap with electron orbital of ligand.

5. dative bond: a covalent bond In which the pair of e- is supplied by one of the 2 balanced atoms (Lewis base provides e- while Lewis acid do not)


Lewis structure


1. Decide Lewis structure: -formula –central atom(one with lowest EN except H) –count e- -draw skeletal structure –add e-


2. electron deficient compound may violent octet rule ex: BF3


3. Formal charge: the electric charge an atom would have if all bonding electrons were shared equally with its bonded neighbor. Normally between -1 and +1


4. resonance is actually delocalized pi-bonds


5. Bond order: the bonds between two atoms, resonance are calculated by taking average


Molecular shape and inter molecular force


1. VSEPR theory: valence e- pairs repelling to minimize energy of molecule or polyatomic ion. Valence e- maximizes distance apart and determine the shape of molecules.


2. geometry shape:


type

# of bond

# of lone pairs

compound

linear

2

0

CO2

trigonal planar

3

0

BF3

bent

2

2

H2O

tetrahedral

4

0

CH4

trigonal pyramid

3

1

NH3

trigonal bipyramid

5

0

PCl5

t-shape

3

2

BrF3

octahedral

6

0

SF6

see-saw

4

1

SeF4

pentagonal bipyramid

7

0

TF7

pyramid

5

1

IF5

square planar

4

2

XeF4


3. all lone pairs are not include in the geometry shape


4. hybridization: (1)sp linear BeH2 (2) sp2 trigonal planar BF3 (3) sp3 tetrahedral (4)sp3d trigonal bipyramid PCl5, XeF2 (5)sp3d2 octahedral SF6, XeF4O, XeF4


5. molecular orbital theory: explains resonance like benzene


6. polarity:

1. non polar: no permanent polarity, no dipole
 


2. Polar: delta EN not zeros


7. Intermolecular forces:

(1)LDF electron fast moving causes temporary dipole. Down a group stronger because of more electrons (more polarizable) and bigger(less attraction of electron), more surface area contact stronger


(2) Hydrogen bond: because of (a)highly EN FONCl(b) no inner shells in H(c) small size of FONCl


(3) Ion dipole: ion + polar mole


(4) dipole-dipole

attraction forces

ion present

no ions

ions only

polar only

non polar only

ionic bond

dipole-dipole

LDF



8. Like dissolves like: polar-polar force to overcome lattice energy, non polar- non polar because of entropy and enthalpy.


题:

MC: Chp.5 – Q10, 11, 13, 14; Chp.6 – Q5, 14, 17, 18, 20
 


FR: 2014年Form B Q5,2012年 Q4, 2006年Q7 (a-b), 。


 

第三天:物质的气、液态与变相

知识点:


1) 灵活应用气体分子的总/平均动能计算公式,以及可爱的Graham’s Law, 知道由PV=nRT推出来的系列公式所对应的不同恒定量假设。


2)牢记理想气体的三个假设及其宏观影响、Van der Waal’s Eq.里a、b的对应含义,会应用气体分压概念进行各种定量运算。


3)能找出三相图、加热/冷却曲线图里的各种特殊点或线,尤其特殊的水。


4)了解溶液和电解质的定义,牢记浓度的两种表达方式、四个colligative properties的含义和定量计算。


5)牢记可溶物和难溶物各自的溶解规律及溶解度表示,理解Ksp和同离子效应的定量运算。


Gases


1. Pressure:1.01*10^5Pa=1atm=760mmHg

 

2. Temperature: K=C+273.15


3. Boyle’s law: PV=k(n,T is kept constant) Charle’s law: V=kT(P,n is kept constant) Avogadro’s law: V=kn(P,T is kept constant)


4. Kinetic molecular theory: assume(1)volume is neglectable (2) no IMF (3)elastic collision (4) average KE=T


5. Peak of number of molecule vs speed graph is approximately average KE


6. m1/m2=average v2^2/average v1^2 v1/v2=√m2/m1


7.Graham’s law of diffusion :average KE=1.5RT=0.5MV^2(for 1 mol) average v=√3RT/Mr (root-mean-square speed)


8. Real gas: tend to act like ideal gas when: T is high and P is low


9. (P+an^2/v(volume)^2)(V-bn)=nRT 题:

MC: Chp.7 – Q8, 19, 20; Chp.8 – Q3, 13-16; Chp.9 – Q14, 17, 18, 20, 21。
 


FR: 2014年Q1、Q4 (a-b), 2013年Q1, 2012年 Q2 (a-e), 2011年 Form B Q2 (a-c), 2010年Q1。


第四天:反应的速率与平衡

知识点:


1)熟练运用实验法找出任一反应的Rate Law, 任一反应物的rxn order,k的数值和单位,熟记0,1,2级反应的对应的公式和各种表达图像,理解线性图像的特殊意义。


2)应运碰撞理论和Arrhenius Eq.分析反应速率;牢记激活能、反应物浓度、温度、压强与反应速率的正负相关性。


3)理解基元反应的molecularity概念,会用多步反应中slow-determining step的反应机制替代总反应机制 。


4)牢记平衡常数的定义式,熟练掌握8种特殊情况下的Keq计算法。


5)熟练应用Le Chatelier’s Law, 分分钟解释Haber process。


Reaction Rate


1. collision theory: reaction is caused by collision with right orientation and enough Ea


2. -surface are increases: more probable of successful collision -temperature increases: more molecules with energy more than Ea


3. Archenius k=Ae^(-Ea/RT) A is pre-exponential constant R=8.314J/mol*K


4. rate= k[A]


5. Ea= Rln(k2/k1)/[(1/t1)-(1/t2)]


6. Reaction profile: for a chemical reaction Ea is fixed. Transition state is the state with highest PE, catalyst will decrease Ea without affecting delta H


7. r= k[A]^x*[B]^y*[C]^z x,y,z are the orders with respect to A,B,C


8. Initial rate method: (a)vary [a] and keep others constant and then (b) vary [B] and keep others constant. Log r= log k +x*log[A]i


9. mechanism: many simples steps together to form a reaction


10. intermediate: produced in one step and consumed in another


11. one can check if his mechanism is correct by finding intermediates.


Nuclear chemistry



 

particle emitted

change of mass

change of charge

alpha decay

2 proton and 2 neutron

-4

-2

beta decay

1 electron

not change

1

gamma decay

1 photon

not change

not change


Different power of abilities of different rays



 

ionizing

penetrating

alpha ray

high

low

beta ray

low

middle

gamma ray

high

very high


Biological effect:


(1) alpha: harmless, cannot penetrate skin


(2) Beta: high, can harm bones, organs


(3) Gamma: high, will ionize molecules can cause them to repeal each other


6. Fission and fusion:


(1) fission: one nuclear becomes more than one particle, like U235


(2) Fusion: two or more nuclei combine to become one nuclear


题:

MC: Chp.11-Q6, 8, 13,17, 20, 22; Chp.10 –Q7, 9,13,17, 19


FR: 2012年 Q3 (d-f), 2011年Q6 (c-d), 2010年Form B Q3 (c-f)。


第五天: 热力学,酸碱和氧化还原反应

知识点:

1)ΔS, ΔH, ΔG的含义和在标准非标准状态的正负值/定量运算,尤其是ΔH,那么多算法,你懂的。


2)关于热容、比热容、ΔG =ΔH - TΔS这些公式的运算和正负值含义。


3)熟练掌握酸碱的三种分类法,包括秒找共轭对,强/弱酸碱的判定,盐的弱酸/碱性判定,缓冲溶液的构成和作用原理。


4)能结合应用氧化数的增减和LEO & GER口诀,随手拆出两个半反应方程式,知道金属活动性和氧化电动势正相关。


5)理解酸碱滴定曲线的图像变化,从而适当选择指示剂;了解两种电池的运作原理;能够熟练判断电池两极,及其装置用途和实验现象。 题 (这天以知识点为主,题不多,明天集中刷定量计算):


MC: Chp. 12-Q9-11, 12, 13, 14


FR: 2014年 Q6 (c), 2013年Q3, 2012年Q3


第六天:酸碱和电化学的计算

计算出题点:


1)强/弱酸、强/弱碱、非中性盐、缓冲溶液、滴定过程中某一时刻的pH, pOH, Ka, Kb,某离子浓度的运算,全都要会,没商量。


2)会算转移电子数,两种电池的标准/非标准电池电势;用法拉第公式计算转移电量和电流;用Nernst Eq.把ΔG,Keq, Q,和Ecell联立解决,包括Q=K或者T=298K这些特殊情况下的简化公式。


题:下方高能预警!

MC: Chp.14-Q4, 5, 9, 22, 24; Chp.13-Q12, 13, 16, 18, 22
 


FR: 酸碱> 2014年Q2, 2012年Q1, 2011年Form B Q1, 2011年Q1, 2010年Form B Q5。氧化还原> 2014年Q3, 2013年Q2, 2012年Q6, 2010年Form B Q2。


第八天:一套半选择题

半套来源:官网考纲


链接:http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/IN120085263_ChemistryCED_Effective_Fall_2013_lkd.pdf


从第119页开始,26道最新版选择样题,限时40分钟,认真做吧。
 


一套来源:自选限时完成,做完务必解决所有疑惑。

 

第九天:2008年的一整套真题

之前建议的每日习题完美避开了2008年,我会乱说吗?而且这套题是世面上难得的有全部答案解析的整套真题,特别赞! 另为了方便大家复习时有个线索,分享一份我整理的分章知识点题纲


网盘链接:http://pan.baidu.com/s/1bntXdAB,密钥:urs3。 最后,不是祝愿,是相信,所有努力过的同学们都能拿到五分,然后开开心心看复联2首映!

Gilbert Slade
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北美百校联盟特派教师
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